Photosensitive elements


Photosensitive elements are semiconductor components that convert light energy into electrical energy. Photoelectronic converters are divided into types, one of them is components with an internal photoelectric effect: photodiodes, phototransistors, photoresistors. Photodiodes are used in various automation devices as sensors of light radiation, they have high speed and high sensitivity. One of the photodiodes that have proven themselves in optoelectronic equipment devices are Russian-made photodiodes FD24K, FD7K, FDK155, FD256 .

Phototransistors , unlike photodiodes, have amplifying devices, due to an increase in the collector current when the transistor crystal emits light energy. Phototransistors manufactured by Kingbright and Vishay have high sensitivity, fast response to changes in illumination, and not a high price. Phototransistors are used in automatic, reading and measuring devices, as a photointerrupter, as a photorelay sensor, and lighting control.

Photoresistors have the property of changing their resistance under the influence of a light flux, moreover, in a very wide range. The main parameters of a photoresistor are its dark and light resistance, operating voltage, total current and photocurrent due to exposure to light.
Photoresistors are widely used in industrial systems of automated lines, as well as various light control sensors. Photoresistors of domestic production FR1-3 have proven themselves to be good indicators. The category of photosensitive devices includes photodetectors . A microcircuit combined in one housing with a photodiode acts as an amplifying device, which affects the high sensitivity of the device that receives the infrared signal.

Vishay's TSOP 1736, TSOP 1738, TSOP 1730 photodetectors are designed to receive a coded infrared signal from a remote control (RC). Products are used in television receivers, as well as used in various household appliances. One type of highly sensitive instrument capable of detecting an infrared signal is the pyroelectric sensor . These products are massively in demand in security devices and various motion sensors. The principle of the sensor is based on the perception by the sensor of infrared radiation emanating from the heat of the human body. Murata IRA series products have high sensitivity, fast response to signal interruption, high-quality photocell and light filter material. To increase the viewing angle and transmit a focused signal to a pyroelectric plate, motion detectors use converging Fresnel lenses.

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