Transistors are semiconductor devices that are designed to amplify, generate and convert electrical signals. It is the main component in any electrical circuit. Transistors are field and bipolar. Their difference is that in a bipolar transistor, electrons (carriers of negative charges) and holes (carriers of positive charges) participate in the charge transfer, and in a field-effect transistor, one of the charge carriers (electrons or holes). In analog technology, bipolar transistors are mainly used, and field-effect transistors are used in digital technology.
Bipolar transistors are structurally built on the basis of a three-layer crystal, which consists of three regions: base, emitter and collector. According to the type of conduction, they are divided into 2 types: direct conduction ( PNP transistor ) and reverse conduction ( NPN transistor ).
Field-effect transistors are structurally different from bipolar ones. Their basis is a wide area of one conductivity, into which small areas with electrodes of another conductivity are embedded. The electrodes of a field effect transistor are called: SOURCE, DRAIN, GATE (Which can be isolated, such transistors are called insulated gate transistors ). The conductive section of the semiconductor material between the source and drain is commonly called a channel. According to the type of conductivity, the channels are divided into 2 types: N-channel transistors and P-channel transistors .
All modern digital technology is mainly based on MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor), as they are more economical than bipolar ones. The international term for such transistors is MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor). MOSFET transistors are one of the most popular in modern electronics. The most famous brands in the production of MOSFET transistors are International Rectifier , STMicroelectronics , ON Semiconductors , Vishay , Fairchild , Infineon, which are constantly improving, offering new developments and technologies.
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